The Troodos mountain was created at the bottom of the Tithios Sea at the upper Cretaceous (90 million years ago), with the ocean floor rising to the sinking boundary of the African plate under Eurasia. The Troodos ophiolithic complex is considered to be the most complete and well-studied world. Besides the ophiolithic complex, a special geological formation is observed in the southwestern part of the mountainous area, the Geometric Zone of Mamonia. It consists of a series of explosive, sedimentary and much less transformed rock formations, aged from 210 to 95 million years old.
The Troodos ophiolithic complex conceals enormous mineral wealth. Rich deposits of asbestos, chromite, copper pyrite, as well as gold and silver are scattered in the mountain range. The exploitation of copper has played a decisive role in the economy and culture of Cyprus.
The route is not linear but focuses around 2 large Troodos mines, which are also their starting points. The first point is located in Katydata and the mine of Skouriotissa, which is open to the public 2-3 times a year, during cultural events. For this reason, guests can visit Exinta Spitia (Sixty Houses), an area located next to the Skouriotissa mine, where the miners used to live in the past. The other is the Amiantos mine, where the Visitor Centre of the Troodos Geopark is located. Visitors based on these 2 points can go by car and hike on 2 beautiful nature trails.