In 2015, the Troodos mountain range was selected by UNESCO and proclaimed a Geopark, due to the due to its unique geological heritage, which is derived from the particular genesis and elevation of the mountain range. The Troodos Geopark is located in the central part of Cyprus and its area is about 1147 km2.
The genesis of Cyprus is directly related to the origination and elevation of the Troodos mountain range, also known as the Troodos Ophiolite Complex. It was the result of a series of unique and complex geological processes that made Cyprus a geological model and one of the best developed ophiolithic clusters in the world for geoscientists around the world. They contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of the planet and the oceans. The mountain range was formed 8,000 metres below the sea 90 million years ago, as a result of the Eurasian and African plate collision. This created an underwater volcanic mountain, which slowly emerged on the surface, over a period of 50 million years.
All groups of ophiolithic rocks are found in Troodos. These rocks ranging from the stratigraphically inferior to the stratigraphic superior are:
– Mantle Rock.
– Plutonic rock (dark minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene, to gobbies, in which the light and dark minerals are in approximately equal proportions).
– Venous rock as a result of continuous magma feeding in the created void space.
– Volcanic rock, and in particular flows of the pillow grips, and
– Chemical sediments, (e.g. dirt).